Development of Emergency Response Team Technical Competency (ER2TC) Assessment Tool for Offshore Process Safety
Keywords:EER, emergency response team, offshore, process safety, safety critical task, technical competency assessment.
The importance in identifying safety critical task in high-risk industries for competence assessment is greatly emphasised to ensure the personnel is well equipped with high level of competence and assurance in certain safety critical tasks. Lack of competency had resulted in various accidents in oil and gas industry. Failure in escape, evacuation, and rescue (EER) operation in history has led to tragic consequences associated with high number of fatalities, such as Alexander L. Kielland platform collapse, Piper Alpha disaster and tragedy of Ocean Ranger. Although competency assessment is widely implemented in offshore industry, accident still occur which indicates that reliable competency assessment is highly essential. In this research, a technical competency assessment tool is developed to assess the technical skills of each individual in emergency response team during EER activities. Case studies are selected to evaluate the designed Emergency Response Team Technical Competency (ER2TC) assessment tool where a range of different inputs and parameters are designed and tested on the designed tool. Analysis is conducted to identify how the overall output is affected by the uncertainty from the designed tool’s input and discover the impact of potential errors in the tool towards the output generated from the tool. The ER2TC assessment tool overcomes personal subjectivity and biasness of assessors, thus, producing reusable and reliable tool for decision makers in the evaluation of candidates. This tool has also implemented stricter assessing criteria to evaluate the performance of candidates in EER activities. This is seen as necessary due to the critical nature and the must to ensure the successful for EER operations as any failure could potentially results in loss of lives. Thus, this ER2TC assessment tool has indeed sufficient to assess the technical skills of personnel in ensuring the success of EER operations in offshore installations.
Cullen, L. W. D. 1993. The public inquiry into the Piper Alpha disaster. Drilling Contractor;(United States), 49.
Deepwater Horizon Study Group. 2011. Final Report on the Investigation of the Macondo Well Blowout.
Jones, M., and P. Bennett. 2015. Competent electrical staff—Are you sure they are competent?. Petroleum and Chemical Industry Committee Conference (PCIC), 2015 IEEE, 1-7.
Jennings , M. 2016. Potential barriers to the competence assessment of Offshore Installation Managers: A hermeneutic perspective. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 44: 132-142.
Mackenzie , C. F., J. Pasley, E. Garofalo, S. Shackelford, H. Chen, and N. Longinaker. 2017. Head-camera video recordings of trauma core competency procedures can evaluate surgical resident's technical performance as well as colocated evaluators. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, 83: S124-S129.
Naumann, F. L., S. Marshall, B. Shulruf, and P. D. Jones. 2016. Exploring examiner judgement of professional competence in rater based assessment. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 21: 775-788.
Ponton-Carss, A., J. B. Kortbeek, and I. W. Ma. 2016. Assessment of technical and nontechnical skills in surgical residents. The American Journal of Surgery, 212: 1011-1019.
Koehler, R. J., S. Amsdell, E. A. Arendt, L. J. Bisson, J. P. Bramen, and A. Butler. 2013. The arthroscopic surgical skill evaluation tool (ASSET). The American Journal Of Sports Medicine, 41: 1229-1237.
Wright, M., D. Turner, and C. Horbury. 2003. Competence Assessment For The Hazardous Industries. HSE Books.
Brazier, A., P. Richardson, and D. Embrey. 1999. Human Factors Assessment Of Safety Critical Tasks. HSE Offshore Technology Report OTO 1999 0921999.
Health, G. B., and S. Executive. 2017. The Control of Major Accident Hazards Regulations 2015: Guidance on Regulations. HSE Books.
Occupational Safety and Health. 1995. A Handbook to the Control of Industrial Major Accident Hazards (CIMAH) Regulations 1996: Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994. Aliran Pusaka.
Occupational Safety and Health. 2020. Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 (Act 514) Regulations and Orders. International Law Book Services.
Factories and Machinery. 2019. Factories and Machinery Act 1967 (Act 139), Regulations, Rules & Orders. International Law Book Services.
Reznick, R. K., and H. MacRae. 2006. Teaching surgical skills—changes in the wind. New England Journal of Medicine, 355: 2664-2669.
Sanchez-Fernandez, J., J. Bachiller-Burgos, A. Serrano-Pascual, J. Cozar-Olmo, I. D.-G. Martín-Portugués, and F. Perez-Duarte. 2016. The assessment of surgical skills as a complement to the training method. Revision. Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition), 40: 55-63.
Manca, D., S. Nazir, and S. Colombo. 2012. Performance indicators for training assessment of control-room operators. Chemical Engineering Transactions. 26: 285-290
IADC. 2010. Health Safety and Environmental Case Guidelines for Mobile Offshore Drilling Units. International Association of Drilling Contractors.
Wallace, I. G. 1993. The assessment of evacuation, escape and rescue provisions on offshore installations. Institution Of Chemical Engineers Symposium Series. 713-713.
Skogdalen, J. E., J. Khorsandi, and J. E. Vinnem. 2012. Evacuation, escape, and rescue experiences from offshore accidents including the Deepwater Horizon. Journal Of Loss Prevention In The Process Industries, 25: 148-158.
Guard, U. C.. 1983. Marine Casualty Report–Mobile Offshore Unit (MODU) OCEAN RANGER. Report USCG, 1.
HSE. 1997. Prevention of Fire and Explosion, and Emergency Response on Offshore Installations. Health and Safety Executive Books.
Norazahar, N., F. Khan, B. Veitch, and S. MacKinnon. 2014. Human and organizational factors assessment of the evacuation operation of BP Deepwater Horizon accident. Safety Science, 70: 41-49.
Haddock, J. and M. Neill. 2001. CMAS-An innovative approach to offshore worker training & competence management. Offshore Technology Conference.
Karmous, K., N. Clyne, and I. McLean. 1998. Competency Assurance of Drilling Rig Operatives: A Drilling Contractors Approach. SPE International Conference on Health, Safety, and Environment in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production.
OGP. 2010. Evacuation, Escape, and Rescue. The International Oil and Gas Producers.
Standard, N. 2001. Risk and emergency preparedness analysis. Norwegian Technology Standards Insfitufion, Oslo, Norway.
Mandal, S., K. Singh, R. Behera, S. Sahu, N. Raj, and J. Maiti. 2015. Human error identification and risk prioritization in overhead crane operations using HTA, SHERPA and fuzzy VIKOR method. Expert Systems with Applications,. 42: 7195-7206.
Stanton, N. A. 2006. Hierarchical task analysis: Developments, applications, and extensions. Applied ergonomics, 37: 55-79.
Shepherd, A. 2000. Hierarchial Task Analysis. Taylor & Francis.
Kunlun, S., L. Yan, and X. Ming. 2011. A safety approach to predict human error in critical flight tasks. Procedia Engineering, 17: 52-62.
Rose, J. A. and C. Bearman. 2012. Making effective use of task analysis to identify human factors issues in new rail technology. Applied Ergonomics, 43: 614-624.
Baber, C. and N. A. Stanton. 2002. Task analysis for error identification: theory, method and validation. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, 3: 212-227.
Doytchev, D. E. and G. Szwillus. 2009. Combining task analysis and fault tree analysis for accident and incident analysis: a case study from Bulgaria. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 41: 1172-1179.
Ainsworth, L. K. and B. Kirwan. 1992. A guide to task analysis. Taylor & Francis.
Center for Chemical Process Safety. 2011. Process safety leading and lagging metrics. AIChE, New York.
Kennedy, B. 1993. A human factors analysis of evacuation, escape and rescue from offshore installations. Offshore Technology Report. 93: 994.