Emission Characteristics of Agricultural and Industrial Cellulosic Wastes Blended with Gasoline
Keywords:waste, energy, emission, bio-ethanol, cellulosic
Agricultural and industrial wastes like sawdust and corncobs are definitely pollutants as they are disposed in dump sites and burnt in open air in most developing countries, like Nigeria. Proper utilization of these wastes could help reduce the environmental pollution arising from wastes disposal and combustion of fuels. Emissions generated from running an internal combustion (IC) engine with blends of gasoline and bio-ethanol produced from these wastes, as well as those of pure gasoline were compared in this work. A gas emission analyzer was placed at the exhaust of the IC engine and the readings were taken for each blend and for each round of testing period. The read out emissions were then compared with each other.Â The range of emissions for carbon monoxide (CO) were 1.45-2.75; 2.10-2.90; 2.00-2.62 and 3.0 % vol., for corncobs bio-ethanol/gasoline, softwood sawdust bio-ethanol/gasoline, hardwood sawdust bio-ethanol/gasoline and pure gasoline samples respectively while the emission ranges for hydrocarbon (HC) were 260-435; 328-360; 313-350 and 480 ppm for the same samples respectively. In the case of carbon dioxide (CO2), the samples gave 2.6-4.0; 2.2-3.9; 3.2-4.2 and 3.0 % vol. emissions. Thus all stakeholders considering the adoption of fuel blends in the countryâ€™s quest for increased energy mix can be properly guided on the pollutants associated with the investigated waste materials. This may help in the choice of appropriate waste to energy.
Adebayo A. and O. Awogbemi. 2017. Effects of Fuel Additives on Performance and Emission Characteristics of Spark Ignition Engine. European Journal of Engineering Research and Science, 2(3): 30-35. DOI:https://doi.org/10.24018/ejers.2017.2.3.289
Agarwal, A., 2007. Bio-fuels (alcohols and biodiesel) applications as fuels for internal combustion engines, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science. 33: 233â€“71
Akowuah, J., F. Kemausuor, and S. Mitchual. 2012. Physico-Chemical Characteristics and Market Potential of Sawdust Charcoal Briquette, International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering, 3: 20.
Blanchard, R., S. Bhattacharya, M. Chowdhury, B. Chowdhury, K. Biswas, and B. Choudhury. 2015. A review of bio-fuels in India: challenges and opportunities. Presented at World Energy Engineering Congress, Orlando, Florida, USA.
Florinda M., F. Carlos S. Miroslava and C. NÃdia. 2019.Analysis of Fossil Fuel Energy Consumption and Environmental Impacts in European Countries. Energies, 12: 964
Guerrieri, D., P. Caffrey, and V. Rao. 1995. Investigation into the Vehicle Exhaust Emissions of High Percentage Ethanol Blends, SAE, 85â€“95.
Juan E., I. JosÃ©, O. SebastiÃ¡n, F. Luis and E. JosÃ©. 2018. The effect of using ethanol-gasoline blends on the mechanical, energy and environmental Energies, Vol. 11, pp.221; doi:10.3390 www.mdpi.com/journal/energies
Mehmet I. I, T. Selim, O. A. Selahaddin and K. Nafiz. 2019. Alternative Fuels for Internal Combustion Engines, Intechopen, 85446, DOI: 10.5772
Najafi, G., B. Ghobadian, A. Moosavian, T. Yusaf, R. Mamat, M. Kettner, W. Azmi. 2016. SVM and ANFIS for prediction of performance and exhaust emissions of a SI engine with gasoline-ethanol blended fuels. Applied Thermal Engineering, 95: 186â€“203.
Park, C. Y. Choi, C. Kim, S. Oh, G. Lim, and Y. Moriyoshi. 2010. Performance and exhaust emission characteristics of a spark ignition engine using ethanol and ethanol-reformed gas, Fuel, 89: 2118â€“2125.
Pourkhesalian, A. A. Shamekhi and F. Salimi. 2010. Alternative fuel and gasoline in an SI engine: A comparative study of performance and emissions characteristics, Fuel, 89: 1056â€“1063.
Ragland, K.W., D.J. Aerts, and A.J. Baker. 1991. Properties of Wood for Combustion Analysis, Bioresource Technology 37: 161-168.
Rice, R., A. Sanyal, A. Elrod, and Bata, R. 1991. Exhaust gas emissions of butanol, ethanol and methanolâ€“gasoline blends, Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbine and Power, 11: 337â€“381.
Shruti A. Byadgi and P. Kalburgi. 2016. Production of Bio-ethanol from waste newspaper. Procedia Environmental Sciences 35: 555 â€“ 562
Somma D., H. Lobkowicz and J., Deason. 2010. "Growing America's fuel: an analysis of corn and cellulosic ethanol feasibility in the United States" (PDF). Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy. 12 (4): 373â€“380.
Song, C., W. Zhang, Y. Pei, G. Fan, and G., Xu. 2005. Comparative effects of MTBE and ethanol additions into gasoline on exhaust emissions, Athmospheric Environment, 40: 1957-1970.
Srithar K., K.A. Balasubramanianb, V. Pavendana, B.A. Kumar. 2014. Experimental investigations on mixing of two biodiesels blended with diesel as alternative fuel for diesel engines. Journal of King Saud University â€“ Engineering Sciences. 29(1): 50-56
Stephen S. and R. David. 2018. Impact of ethanol blending on particulate emissions from a spark-ignition direct-injection engine. Fuel, 236: 1548-1558. https://doi.org/10.1016/j
Temper, L., J. Martinez-Alier, 2012. Mapping resistance and resilience to the global landgrab: definitions, financial activism and alliances. Paper presented at the conference on â€˜Global Land Grabbing IIâ€™, Cornell University, Ithaca.
Wang M., C. Saricks D.Santini. 1999. Effects of fuel ethanol use on fuel cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions. Argonne (IL): Argonne National Laboratory.
Wu, C. R. Chen, J. Pu, J. and Lin, T., 2004. The influence of airâ€“fuel ratio on engine performance and pollutant emission of an SI engine using ethanolâ€“gasoline blended fuels, Atmospheric Environment, 38(40): 7093â€“7100.