Concentrations of Magnesium, Calcium and Potassium in Drinking Water; A Comparison between Tap Water and Bore Water


  • Michelle Wang Jing Ling Environmental and Occupational Health Programme, School of Health Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.
  • Siti Marwanis Anua Environmental and Occupational Health Programme, School of Health Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.
  • Nurzafirah Mazlan Department of Diagnostic and Allied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Management and Science University, University Drive, Seksyen 13, 40100 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.



Tap water, bore water, magnesium, calcium, potassium


Minerals content in drinking water are essential for human health. Hence, this cross sectional study aims to determine the concentration of minerals in tap water and bore water consumed among staffs and students of School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia Health Campus. Utilising convenience sampling method, 32 respondents were recruited into this study who agreed for home visit and completed the questionnaires. Based on availability of water samples at home (raw, boiled and filtered), 22 tap water and 10 bore water were collected into 200 ml sampling bottle, in triplicate. Concentration of minerals (magnesium, calcium and potassium) in water samples were analysed using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS). There was higher concentration of magnesium, calcium and potassium in tap water compared to bore water but the difference was statistically significance for calcium only (p=0.007). No significant differences were found in all minerals for both tap water and bore water after filtration or boiling. Concentration of minerals from filtered water samples was found to be higher in galvanised steel pipes compared to polyvinyl chloride. In conclusion, water samples provided by respondents were safe for drinking and cooking as the mineral contents for consumption are below the maximum value of Drinking Water Quality Standard.


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How to Cite

Ling, M. W. J., Anua, S. M., & Mazlan, N. (2019). Concentrations of Magnesium, Calcium and Potassium in Drinking Water; A Comparison between Tap Water and Bore Water. Journal of Energy and Safety Technology (JEST), 2(1).