Design and Application of Silica Micro-Clusters for Microalgae Separation
Keywords:Silica micro-clusters, Surface functionalization, Microalgae, Cell separation efficiency, Sedimentation rate.
Eutrophication has attracted socialâ€™s attention as it is a worldwide problem in freshwater aquatic ecosystem. Therefore, cultivation of microalgae in nutrient-rich medium can serve as wastewater treatment as they remove the pollutants from aquatic environment and the microalgal biomass can produce biofuels or other valuable bioproducts. Although microalgae harvesting by gravity sedimentation method is less expensive but it promotes slow sedimentation rate and increases the possibility of biomass deteriorates during harvesting process. In this research, the silica micro-clusters (SMCs) was being synthesized and surface functionalized by positively charged chitosan to improve the attachment with microalgal cells in order to promote rapid microalgae removal through sedimentation. The cell removal efficiency of Chlorella sp. can reach up to 99.41 Â± 0.64 % by using 1 g/L of surface functionalized SMCs (SF-Si). Moreover, it also tended to promote high rate of cell sedimentation at 22.71 Â± 3.02 cm/h which was about 162 times faster than self-sedimentation. This method of silica-aided-sedimentation (SAS) had proven effective to harvest the multi-species microalgal cells which collected from Tualang lake, Perak, and achieved cell separation efficiency up to 100% by 80 mg/L of SF-Si.
Jihar, H. S., D. Abhijeet, P. Kushal, P. Keyur, and V. M. Alpesh. 2014. A comprehensive overview on various method of harvesting microalgae according to Indian perspective. International Conference on Multidisciplinary Research and Practice: 1: 313-317.
Singh, M., R. Shukla, and K. Das. 2013. Harvesting of microalgal biomass. Biotechnological Applications of Microalgae: 77-88.
Xu, L., C. Guo, F. Wang, S. Zheng, and C. Z. Liu. 2011. A simple and rapid harvesting method for microalgae by in situ magnetic separation. Bioresource Technology: 102: 10047-10051.
Lim J. K., D. J. C. Chan, S. A. Jalak, P. Y. Toh, N. H. Yasin, B. W. Ng, and A. L. Ahmad. 2012. Rapid Magnetophoretic Separation Of Microalgae. Small: 8: 1689-1692.
Toh P. Y., B. W. Ng, A. L. Ahmad, D. J. C. Chan, and J. K. Lim. 2014. Magnetophoretic separation of Chlorella sp.: Role of Cationic Polymer Binder. Process Safety and Environmental Protection: 92: 515-521.
Jiang G. X., Z. Y. Shen, J. F. Niu, L. P. Zhuang, and T. D. He. 2011. Nanotoxicity of Engineered Nanomaterials In The Environment. Progress in Chemistry: 23: 1769-1781.
Toh P. Y., W. Y. Tai, A. L. Ahmad, J. K. Lim, and D. J. C. Chan. 2015. Toxicity of Bare And Surfaced Functionalized Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Towards microalgae. International Journal of Phytoremediation: 18: 643-650.
Demir V., M. Ates, Z. Arslan, M. Camas, F. Celik, C. Bogatu, and S. S. Can. 2015. Influence of Alpha And Gamma-Iron Oxide Nanoparticles On Marine Microalgae Species. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology: 95: 752-757.
Ayatallahzadeh Shirazi, M., F. Shariati, A. K. Keshavarz, and Z. Ramezanpour. 2015. Toxic Effect Of Aluminum Oxide Nanoparticles On Green Micro-Algae Dunaliella Salina. International Journal of Environmental Research: 9: 585-594.
Karunakaran, G., R. Suriyaprabha, V. Rajendran, and N. Kannan. 2015. Toxicity Evaluation Based On Particle Size, Contact Angle And Zeta Potential of SiO2 and Al2O3 on the Growth Of Green Algae. Advances in Nano Research: 3: 243-255.
Live Strong. 2011. What is Silicon Dioxide In Supplements? http://www.livestrong.com/article/520897-what-is-silicon-dioxide-in-supplements/. Accessed 11 July 2016.
MemPro Material. 2016. Silica Dioxide Nanofibre Mateial. http://mempro.com/products/ceramic-nanofiber-materials/silicon-dioxide-nanofiber-material/. Accessed 11 July 2016.
Li, B. J., X. Y. Zou, Y. B. Zhao, L. Sun, and S. L. Li. 2013. Biofunctionalization of Silica Microspheres For Protein Separation. Materials Science and Engineering C: 33: 2595-2600.
Kim, K. M., H. M. Kim, W. J. Lee, C. W. Lee, T. I. Kim, L. K. Lee, J. Y. Jeong, S. M. Paek, and J. M. Oh. 2014. Surface Treatment Of Silica Nanoparticles For Stable And Charge-Controlled Colloidal Silica. Journal of International Journal of Nanomedicine: 9: 29-40.
Budnyak, T. M., I. V. Pylypchuk, V. A. Tertykh, E. S. Yanovska, and D. Kolodynska. 2015. Synthesis and Adsorption Properties Of Chitosan-Silica Nanocomposite Prepared By Sol-Gel Method. Nanoscale Research Letters: 10: 87.
Ahmad, A. L., N. H. M. Yasin, D. J. C. Chan, and J. K. Lim. 2011. Optimization of Microalgae Coagulation Process Using Chitosan. Chemical Engineering Journal: 173: 879-882.
No, H. K., and S. P. Meyers. 2000. Application of Chitosan For Treatment Of Wastewaters. Review of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology: 163: 1-27.
Koohestanian, A., M. Hosseini, and Z. Abbasian. 2008. The Separation Method For Removing Of Colloidal Particles From Raw Water. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Science: 4: 266-273.
Wu, X., X. Ge, D. Wang, and H. Tang. 2007. Distinct Coagulation Mechanism And Model Between Alum And High Al13 â€“PACl. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects: 305: 89â€“96.
Zhou, Y., and G. V. Franks. 2006. Flocculation Mechanism Induced By Cationic Polymers Investigated By Light Scattering. Langmuir: 22: 6775-6786.
Roussy, J., M. Van Vooren, B. A. Dempsey, and E. Guibal. 2005. Influence of Chitosan Characteristics On The Coagulation And The Flocculation Of Bentonite Suspensions. Water Research: 39: 3247-3258.
Hadjoudja, S., V. Deluchat, and M. Baudu. 2010. Cell Surface Characterisation of Microcystis aeruginosa and Chlorella vulgaris. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science: 342: 293-299.