An Economic Analysis of Small-Scale Standalone Photovoltaic System with Hydrogen Storage System


  • Nur Dalilah Nordin Centre of Electrical Energy Systems, Institute of Future Energy, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Hasimah Abdul Rahman Centre of Electrical Energy Systems, Institute of Future Energy, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia



Standalone power system, photovoltaic generation, hydrogen storage, battery, economic analysis


This paper proposes design steps in obtaining the optimal size of a standalone photovoltaic (PV) system, which is able to meet a predetermined power load requirement. The keys of the system sizing are primarily to satisfy a specific load demand that depends on the power generated from the installed PV system and also to maintain hydrogen storage state of charge. A case study was conducted using Kuala Lumpur's meteorological data and a typical rural area load profile of 2.215 kWh. An economic analysis on the system was performed in order to determine system feasibility. The levelized cost of energy for the proposed system was RM1.98/kWh. However, the results showed that if the same configuration used absorbent glass mat (AGM) battery as the backup power supply, the system cost and levelized cost of energy is lower. Therefore, a sensitivity analysis of the electrolyzer and fuel cell efficiencies towards levelized cost of energy for the proposed system was executed. The result indicates that unless the efficiency of hydrogen storage technologies significantly increases in the future, the system will not be feasible to be implemented in Malaysia.


A. Mellit and S. A. Kalogirou. 2008. Artificial intelligence techniques for photovoltaic applications: A review. in Progress in Energy and Combustion Science vol. 34. ed. 574-632.

K. Zipp. (2015, 19 May). Batteries: Which is best for solar storage? Available:

(2014, 19 May). Including a Generator With Your Solar Array. Available:

H. Tebibel and S. Labed. 2014. Design and sizing of stand-alone photovoltaic hydrogen system for HCNG production. in International Journal of Hydrogen Energy vol. 39. ed. 3625-3636.

M. Castañeda, A. Cano, F. Jurado, H. Sánchez and L. M. Fernández. 2013. Sizing optimization, dynamic modeling and energy management strategies of a stand-alone PV/hydrogen/battery-based hybrid system. in International Journal of Hydrogen Energy vol. 38. ed. 3830-3845.

M. A. Pellow, C. J. Emmott, C. J. Barnhart and S. M. Benson. 2015. Hydrogen or batteries for grid storage? A net energy analysis. in Energy & Environmental Science. ed.

W. Zhou, C. Lou, Z. Li, L. Lu and H. Yang. 2010. Current status of research on optimum sizing of stand-alone hybrid solar–wind power generation systems. in Applied Energy vol. 87. ed. 380-389.

N. Barsoum and P. Vacent. 2007. Balancing cost, operation and performance in integrated hydrogen hybrid energy system. in Modelling & Simulation, 2007. AMS'07. First Asia International Conference on. ed: IEEE. 14-18.

N. D. Nordin and H. A. Rahman. 2014. Design and economic analysis in stand alone photovoltaic system. in Energy Conversion (CENCON), 2014 IEEE Conference on. ed: IEEE. 152-157.

N. Nordin and H. Rahman. 2017. Sizing and economic analysis of stand alone photovoltaic system with hydrogen storage. in IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science vol. 93. ed: IOP Publishing. 012068.

D. L. King, W. E. Boyson and J. A. Kratochvil. 2002. Analysis of factors influencing the annual energy production of photovoltaic systems. in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 2002. Conference Record of the Twenty-Ninth IEEE. ed: IEEE. 1356-1361.

(23rd February ). PVsyst: Software for Photovoltaic System. Available:

W. Shen. 2009. Optimally sizing of solar array and battery in a standalone photovoltaic system in Malaysia. in Renewable Energy vol. 34. ed. 348-352.

M. Hankins. 2010.Stand-alone Solar Electric Systems: The Earthscan Expert Handbook for Planning, Design and Installation: Earthscan.

(20 May 2014). PV Modules in a String. Available:

D. Ipsakis, S. Voutetakis, P. Seferlis, F. Stergiopoulos and C. Elmasides. 2009. Power management strategies for a stand-alone power system using renewable energy sources and hydrogen storage. in international journal of hydrogen energy vol. 34. ed. 7081-7095.

A. Nafeh. 2009. Design and Economic Analysis of a stand-alone PV system to electrify a remote area household in Egypt. in Open Renewable Energy Journal vol. 2. ed. 33-37.

R. Jallouli and L. Krichen. 2012. Sizing, techno-economic and generation management analysis of a stand alone photovoltaic power unit including storage devices. in Energy vol. 40. ed. 196-209.

S. I. Sulaiman, T. K. A. Rahman, I. Musirin and S. Shaari. 2011. Sizing grid-connected photovoltaic system using genetic algorithm. in Industrial Electronics and Applications (ISIEA), 2011 IEEE Symposium on. ed: IEEE. 505-509.

V. Applasamy. 2011. Cost evaluation of a stand-alone residential photovoltaic power system in Malaysia. in Business, Engineering and Industrial Applications (ISBEIA), 2011 IEEE Symposium on. ed: IEEE. 214-218.

W. G. Sullivan, E. M. Wicks and J. T. Luxhoj. 2009.Engineering economy: Pearson Prentice Hall.

E. Zoulias and N. Lymberopoulos. 2007. Techno-economic analysis of the integration of hydrogen energy technologies in renewable energy-based stand-alone power systems. in Renewable Energy vol. 32. ed. 680-696.

C. S. Park, P. Kumar and N. Kumar. 2004.Fundamentals of engineering economics: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

(1 December 2014). Malaysia Inflation Rate. Available:

(1 December 2014). Bank Lending Rates. Available:

S. Kamel and C. Dahl. 2005. The economics of hybrid power systems for sustainable desert agriculture in Egypt. in Energy vol. 30. ed. 1271-1281.

D. Näsvall. 2013. Development of a model for physical and economical optimization of distributed PV systems. ed.

(20 May 2014). Sealed-AGM Batteries. Available:

(20 May 2014). 140 Watt BLACK FRAME Solar Panel. Available:

(20 May 2014). Blue Sky Energy. Available:

(20 May 2014). 350 Watt 24 Volt Inverter / Pure Sine Wave. Available:




How to Cite

Nordin, N. D., & Abdul Rahman, H. (2018). An Economic Analysis of Small-Scale Standalone Photovoltaic System with Hydrogen Storage System. Journal of Energy and Safety Technology (JEST), 1(1).